Failure prevention of plant and machinery [electronic resource] / A. A. Hattangadi. - New York, N.Y. : McGraw-Hill Education LLC., c2004. - xxvii, 457 p. : ill., figs., tables.
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
A. Dedication -- B. Foreword -- C. Preface -- 1. Introduction -- Zero failure performance -- It is certainly possible to attain zero failure performance -- Failure mechanisms are also governed by natural laws -- Natural laws that govern the failure processes -- Measures to be taken for attaining zero failure performance -- Cost of attaining zero failure performance -- 2. How to attain zero failure performance -- Proximate causes and root causes of failures -- Root causes of failures are often apparently trivial -- The role of the maintenance engineer -- What the maintenance engineer must not do -- Conclusion -- 3. General features of failures -- Failure modes and failure mechanisms -- Definitions of the terms: defect, failure and accident -- General plan of this book -- Variability of failure rates -- Fracture -- Stresses/strengths can be of different types -- Prevention of failures -- Reporting and classification of failures -- Systematic documentation and communication -- References -- 4. Investigation of failures -- In the ultimate analysis, all failures are caused by human errors -- The need for systematic investigations -- Fixing priorities for investigations -- Process of investigation -- Failure investigation: step-by-step approach -- Review of failure statistics -- Investigation of fires and serious accidents -- Action plan -- Conclusion -- 5. Degradation processes (mechanical) -- Introduction -- Thermal expansion -- Vibration -- Metal fatigue -- Metal creep -- Corrosion -- Friction -- Brittle fracture -- Shrinkage -- Yield deformation -- Erosion or wear -- Stress concentration -- Failures due to increase in stress concentration factors -- 6. Degradation processes (electrical) -- Introduction -- Electrical heating -- Contact resistance -- Partial discharge -- Dielectric breakdown -- Electrical tracking -- Magnetization -- Thermal degradation -- Electromagnetic induction -- 7. Split pin and cotter failures -- Introduction -- Absence of the split pin or cotter -- Cracking and fracture of split pin or cotter -- Corrosion -- Some general remarks -- Do's and don'ts for preventing split pin and cotter failures -- 8. Threaded fastener failures -- Introduction -- Fracture below the head in bolts -- Fracture through roots of threads -- Fracture through corners at changes of section -- Fracture of threaded fasteners due to excessive stress -- Failures caused by relaxation of tension in threaded fasteners -- Failures of fasteners due to relaxation caused by metal creep -- Locking arrangements for nuts in threaded fasteners -- General design of the fastener -- Failures of screws due to errors in lengths -- Failures of threaded fasteners due to stripping of threads -- Do's and don'ts for preventing fastener failures -- 9. Shaft or axle failures -- Introduction -- Shaft failures due to increase in stress concentration factors -- Shaft failures due to overloading and material deficiency -- Preventive measures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing shaft and axle failures. 10. Ball and roller bearing failures -- Introduction -- The most common mechanism of failure in ball bearings is fatigue -- Common causes of ball bearing failures -- Lack of lubrication -- Wrong or defective lubricant -- Inadequate or excess lubricant -- Contamination of lubricant -- Inadequate interference between inner race and shaft -- Excessive interference between inner race and shaft -- Errors in axial positions of inner races -- Slipping of outer race -- Damage to races during assembly -- Case studies -- Bearing failure due to seal failure-i -- Bearing failure due to seal failure-ii -- Do's and don'ts for preventing ball and roller bearing failures -- 11. Sleeve bearing failures -- Introduction -- Common failure modes -- Failures due to external heating -- Failures due to thefts of lubricants -- Failures due to leakage of oil from reservoirs -- Failures due to excessive stress -- Failures of railway axle boxes -- Failures due to excessive ambient temperatures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing sleeve bearing failures -- Appendix 11.1 calculation of standard deviation -- 12. Failures of white metal bearings of electric locomotives -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Failure investigation -- Remedial measures -- Conclusion -- 13. Flat belt failures -- Introduction -- General factors that influence reliability and durability -- Failures due to joint defects -- Failures due to rubbing on edges -- Failures due to belt stretch -- Do's and don'ts for preventing flat belt failures -- 14. Vee-belt failures -- Introduction -- Belt failures due to mis-matching -- Belt failures due to pulley defects -- Belt failures due to belt stretch -- Belt failures due to poor belt quality -- Belt wear due to gritty dust -- Do's and don'ts for preventing vee-belt failures -- 15. Pulley failures -- Introduction -- Defects in pulley fabrication -- Defects in machining pulley bore -- Do's and don'ts for preventing pulley failures -- 16. Gear failures -- Introduction -- Principal modes of failures due to gear system defects -- Failures of railway traction gears -- Gear failures due to machining defects -- Gear failures due to defective heat treatment -- Gear failures due to grit entry in gear boxes -- Gear rim failures due to machining defects -- Gear failures due to other causes -- Do's and don'ts for preventing gear failures -- 17. Steel wire rope failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes and mechanisms -- Case studies -- Do's and don'ts for preventing wire rope failures -- 18. Spring failures -- Introduction -- Spring failures due to sharp bends -- Spring failures due to dents -- Spring failures due to wear at its terminal fittings -- Spring failures due to corrosion and wear -- Spring failures due to abrasion (i) -- Spring failures due to abrasion (2) -- Failures of other shapes of springs -- Spring failures due to design and manufacturing defects -- Spring failures which do not look like spring failures -- Spring failures due to permanent deformation -- Maintenance of springs -- Do's and don'ts for preventing spring failures -- 19. Gasket failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes for gaskets -- Gasket failure due to metal creep -- Gasket failures due to shrinkage of gasket -- Gasket failures due to unevenness of flange faces -- Do's and don'ts for preventing gasket failures -- 20. O-ring and u-ring failures -- Introduction -- O-ring failure modes and causes -- Cracks, shrinkage, distortion and permanent set -- O-ring failures due to unsuitability of material -- Failures of o-rings due to dimensional errors -- O-ring failures due to errors in groove dimensions -- Failures of u-rings -- U-ring failures due to damage during testing -- U-ring failures due to incorrect assembly -- Do's and don'ts for preventing o-ring and u-ring failures. 21. Rubber hose pipe failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Case studies -- Do's and don'ts for preventing hose pipe failures -- 22. Pipe and tube failures -- Introduction -- Fractures of tubes at bends -- Fractures of tubes due to other causes -- Fractures of and leakages at tube joints -- Failures due to thermal stresses -- Failures due to defective material -- Tube failures in water tube boilers and heat exchangers -- Failures due to maintenance deficiencies -- Failures due to vibration -- Failures due to vibration -- Do's and don'ts for preventing tube failures -- 23. Compressed air valve failures -- Introduction -- Failures due to incorrect installation -- Failures due to residual magnetism -- Failures due to accumulation of dust -- Failures due to leakage -- Failures due to damage to rubber diaphragm -- Failures due to design defects -- Do's and don'ts to prevent pneumatic valve failures -- 24. Failures of compressed air operated equipment -- Introduction -- Moisture in compressed air -- Failures due to moisture in the air -- Failures due to dust and solid particulate matter in the air -- Low air pressure -- Leakage of compressed air -- Do's and don'ts for preventing compressed air equipment failures -- 25. Fluid filter failures -- Introduction -- Excessive flow of filtrate into output stream -- Failure due to blockage and by-passing of filter element -- Do's and don'ts for preventing filter failures -- 26. Compressed air motor failures -- Introduction -- Failures due to blocked air filters -- Failures due to incorrect choke sizes -- Failures due to excessive airflow -- Failures due to rubber degradation -- Do's and don'ts for preventing air motor failures -- 27. Air compressor failures -- Introduction -- Carbonisation of inlet and outlet valve plates -- Failures due to breakage of valve spring plates -- Failure due to breakage of valve plates -- Normal wear and tear -- Compressor speed control -- Do's and don'ts for preventing compressor failures -- 28. Vacuum brake failures on dc emus -- Introduction -- Principle of operation of vacuum brake system -- Failures due to snifter valve defects -- Brake binding due to defective rolling rings -- Brake binding due to bending of piston rods -- Do's and don'ts for preventing failures due to brake binding -- 29. Fan and blower failures -- Introduction -- Excessive vibration -- Failures due to cracks and fractures of impellers -- Reduced output from blower -- Do's and don'ts for preventing fan and blower failures -- 30. Thermal cracks on motor coach tyres -- Introduction -- Mechanism of failure (cracks on tyres) -- Preventive measures -- Emergency measures -- Thermal cracks on emu tyres -- Do's and don'ts for preventing thermal cracks in steel tyres -- 31. Structural member failures -- Generalities -- Failures due to defects in material and in assembly -- Failures due to sharp bends in plates -- Cracks in castings -- Failures due to excessive stress caused by vibration -- Do's and don'ts for preventing structural failures -- A. About chapters 32 to 65 -- 32. Crimped socket failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes and failure mechanisms -- Overheating of crimped sockets -- Failures due to inadequate thickness of socket barrel -- Consequential damage after terminal failure -- Causes of overheating of and working out of cables from sockets -- Causes of fractures of sockets and wires -- Failures due to sharp bends and corners -- Failures due to defective material -- Other causes of socket and wire fractures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing failures of crimped sockets -- References. 33. Wire and cable failures -- Introduction -- Fracture or breakage of wires -- Line failures due to parallel clamp defects -- Stray wires causing line fractures -- Failures due to excessive current -- Failures of joints in solid copper conductors -- Overhead line failures due to excessive tension -- Other causes of contact wire or catenary parting -- Failure of contact wire due to bad contact at the pantograph -- Traction motor lead failures -- Fracture of leads to electrical apparatus -- Failures of copper strands, inside insulation of multicore cables -- Failures of splices or end fittings -- Aluminium wires -- Do's and don'ts for preventing wire failures -- References -- 34. Insulated wire failures -- Introduction -- Causes of insulation failures -- Failures due to overheating by eddy currents in steel plates -- Failures of insulation due to abrasion -- Insulation failures due to overheating -- Other failure mechanisms -- Do's and don'ts for preventing insulation failures -- References -- 35. Auxiliary motor cable failures -- Introduction -- Failure mechanism -- Remedial measures -- Protection systems -- Do's and don'ts for preventing auxiliary motor cable failures -- 36. Multicore coupler failures -- Introduction -- Overheating, charring, arcing, melting of contacts -- Mechanism of failures starting with low contact force -- Prevention of failures due to low contact resistance and overheating -- Failures of multi-core couplers due to shorts between cores -- Open circuits -- Plug pull out test -- Conclusion -- Do's and don'ts for preventing coupler failures -- 37. Knife switch failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Failure mechanisms and causes of failures -- Measurement of contact force -- Special forms of knife switches -- Other failure modes -- Do's and don'ts for preventing knife switch failures -- 38. Parallel clamp failures -- Introduction -- Causes of line failures due to defects in parallel clamps -- Failures due to inadequate tightening of bolts -- Failures due to metal creep -- Check list for parallel clamps -- Do's and don'ts for preventing parallel clamp failures -- 39. Terminal board failures -- Introduction -- Failure of bolted terminal due to high ambient temperature -- Failures due to shrinkage of insulating board -- Failure of terminal board due to metal creep -- Failure of bolted joint due to assembly error -- Other causes of terminal board failures -- Terminal designs -- Do's and don'ts for preventing terminal failures -- 40. Capacitor failures -- Introduction -- Capacitor failures due to excessive temperature -- Capacitor failures due to excessive voltage -- Capacitor failures due to over-age -- Failures due to poor intrinsic quality -- Failures due to open circuits -- Failures due to over temperature -- Failures due to over-voltage -- Failures due to over-age -- Specifying and testing of capacitors for reliability -- Do's and don'ts for preventing capacitor failures -- 41. Resistor failures -- Introduction -- Causes of failures of resistors -- Failures of bolted connections -- Failures due to over-loading -- Failures due to over-heating -- Failures due to poor quality of resistors -- Failures of leads due to sharp bends -- Failure due to overheating -- Failures due to local overheating -- Selection and testing of resistors -- Do's and don'ts for preventing resistor failures -- 42. Potentiometer failures -- Introduction -- Sliding contact failures -- Poor intrinsic reliability of potentiometers -- Failures due to inadequate contact force -- Failures due to poor quality of the potentiometer -- Do's and don'ts for preventing potentiometer failures. 43. Contact failures -- Introduction -- Failure mode and mechanism of failure -- How the failure mechanism gets started -- Other relevant factors in failure mechanisms -- Failures of contacts due to inadequate contact force -- Contact failure due to inadequate clearance -- Summary -- Cleanliness and matching of contacts -- Matching of contacts is unnecessary -- Dangers inherent in pressure contact failures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing contact failures -- 44. Relays failures -- Introduction -- Variations in pick-up and drop-out parameters -- Case studies -- Do's and don'ts to prevent relay failures -- References -- 45. Failures of fuses and miniature circuit breakers -- Introduction -- Definition of failure of fuse or mcb -- Mcb/fuse failures of type (a) -- Fuse or mcb failures of type (b) -- Specifications and testing of fuses and mcbs -- Probable causes of failures of fuses and mcbs -- Mcbs failed to clear faults -- Fuses blowing in the absence of faults -- Fuse failures due to bad contact between the fuse cap and fuse carrier clips -- Failure of mcb to trip on overload -- Do's and don'ts for preventing failures of mcbs and fuses -- 46. Bus-bar failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Failures of bolted joints on bus-bars -- Failures due to shrinkage of laminates in fastener force circuit -- Failure due to inadequate bolt size -- Failure due to high ambient temperature -- Bolted joint failures due to high temperature -- Fractures of bus-bars -- Bus-bar failures in transformers due to sharp bends -- Bus-bar failures due to vibration -- Bus-bar failures due to thermal stresses and fatigue -- Failure of support insulators -- Short-circuits between bus-bars -- Short-circuit between bus-bars due to vermin -- Do's and don'ts for preventing bus-bar failures -- 47. Failures of lead acid batteries -- Introduction -- Routine checks when lead acid batteries are replaced -- Measures for prolonging the life of lead acid batteries -- Operating practices for prolonging the life of lead acid batteries -- Maintenance practices for prolonging the life of lead acid batteries -- Lead acid battery failures due to other causes -- Battery charger defects -- Do's and don'ts for preventing battery failures -- 48. Failures of incandescent lamps -- Introduction -- Failure mechanism of an incandescent lamp -- Measures to minimise incandescent lamp failures -- Condition monitoring of incandescent lamps -- Do's and don'ts for minimising incandescent lamp failures -- 49. Insulator failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Mechanisms of failures -- Degradation of flashover strength -- Insulator flashovers due to pollution -- Insulator flashovers due to partial cleaning -- Insulator failures due to defective grouting -- Insulator fractures due to chip inclusions -- Insulator failures due to corrosion of pins -- Insulator failures due to puncture through epoxy -- Insulator failures due to birds -- Insulator failures due to carbon dust -- Do's and don'ts for preventing insulator failures -- 50. Solenoid failures -- Introduction -- Failures due to high voltage switching surges -- Damage to copper wire due to acidic flux -- Failures due to wire damage during winding -- Damage to copper wire by high operating temperature due to design defect -- Failure due to incorrect adjustment of magnetic core -- Do's and don'ts for preventing solenoid failure -- B. About chapters 51 to 65. 51. Failures of carbon brushes and commutators -- Introduction -- Failure modes -- Causes of failures -- Recommended sequence of checks -- Failures due to lacunae in manufacturing process for commutators -- Failures due to angular shift of brush-holder ring -- Various other case studies in brief -- Do's and don'ts for preventing carbon brush failures -- 52. Commutator connection failures -- Introduction -- Soldered joints -- Failures of soldered joints through general overheating -- Soldered joint failures due to manufacturing defects -- Tig welded joint failures -- Condition monitoring of commutator joints -- Do's and don'ts for preventing failures of commutator connections -- 53. Commutator failures -- Introduction -- Commutator ovality or irregularity -- Other causes of commutator failures -- Maintenance and installation of dc machines -- Do's and don'ts for preventing commutator failures -- 54. Failures of rotor or armature coils in dc machines -- Introduction -- Effects of thermal expansion and contraction -- Effects of radial forces -- Winding failures due to commutator connection defects -- Practical measures for preventing rotor winding failures -- Case studies of dc machine rotor failures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing armature failures -- 55. Failures of stator coils in rotating machines -- Introduction -- Main or ground insulation failure rotating machine stators -- Case study (vibration) -- Failures due to overheating -- Failures due to degradation of insulation caused by water or oil -- Normal ageing -- Inter-turn insulation failures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing stator winding failures -- 56. Starting resistor failures -- Introduction -- Failures of starting resistors -- Analysis of the problem -- Remedial measures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing starting resistor failures -- 57. Tapchanger connection failures -- Introduction -- Failure modes and failure mechanisms -- Remedial measures -- Conclusion -- 58. Electrical machine failures due to ventilation problems -- Introduction -- Failures of bellows -- Failures of motors due to bad maintenance -- Motor failures due to defects in inspection cover latches -- System design improvements -- Motor failures due to defect in ventilation duct -- Power transformer failures due to defects in the cooling system -- Prevention of failures of protective devices in ventilation systems -- Do's and don'ts for preventing cooling system failures. 59. Power transformer explosions -- Introduction -- Design consideration relating to wedges or separators in coil stacks -- Failures due to defective material of separators -- Failures due to lack of pre-curing of the coils -- Failures due to neglect of shrinkage compensating devices -- Other causes of transformer failures -- Do's and don'ts for preventing transformer failures -- 60. Failures of ohe regulating equipment -- Introduction -- Failures of regulating equipment -- Do's and don'ts for preventing failures of regulating equipment -- 61. Minimum oil circuit-breaker failures -- Introduction -- Failures of mocbs due to use of defective spares -- Conclusion -- 62. Line breaker failures -- Introduction -- Failure investigation through statistical analysis of failure data -- Preventive measures -- Conclusion -- 63. Squirrel cage failures in asynchronous motors -- Introduction -- Mechanical stresses in a squirrel cage -- Failure mechanism in squirrel cages -- Detection of cracked bars in squirrel cages -- Prevention of cracks in rotor bars -- Die cast aluminium alloy squirrel cages -- Conclusion -- 64. Failures of mush wound stator windings -- Introduction -- Failure modes and mechanisms in mush windings -- High voltage standing waves -- Measures to minimise or prevent mush winding failures -- Other causes of asynchronous motor failures -- Motor failures due to poor ventilation, overloading, excessive voltage, low voltage, low frequency -- Do's and don'ts for preventing stator failures -- 65. Pantograph ohe entanglements -- Introduction -- General classification of causes of pantograph/ohe entanglements -- Prevention of pantograph/ohe entanglements -- 66. Failures and accidents in chemical plant -- Chemical plant failures due to mechanical/electrical failures -- Learning from accidents -- Chemical plant failures due to chemical reactions -- Case studies involving chemical reactions -- Lessons to be learnt from review of chemical plant failures -- Basic principles of maintenance to be followed in the design of maintenance schedules -- Basic principles of operation to be followed -- References.
Based on the premise of 'Zero-Failure performance' and the aspiration for the same, this book introduces the general features and investigative methods for determining failures of mechanical and electrical equipment. It focuses on the degradation processes and highlights the failure modes and mechanisms, including the apparently trivial ones.
9780070483095 (print ISBN) 0070483094 (print ISBN)