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A working guide to process equipment [electronic resource] / by Norman P. Lieberman, Elizabeth T. Lieberman.

Por: Lieberman, Norman P [].
Colaborador(es): Lieberman, Elizabeth T [].
Tipo de material: TextoTextoSeries McGraw-Hill's AccessEngineering: Editor: Chicago, Ill. : McGraw-Hill Education LLC., c2014Edición: 4th ed.Descripción: xxix, 591 p. : ill., figs., tables.ISBN: 9780071828062 (print); 0071828060 (print); 9780071828123 (ebook); 0071828125 (ebook).Tema(s): Chemical engineering -- Equipment and supplies | Production engineering -- Equipment and supplies | Chemical plants -- Equipment and supplies | TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING -- Chemical & Biochemical | SCIENCE -- Chemistry -- Industrial & TechnicalClasificación CDD: 660.283 Recursos en línea: Haga clic para acceso en línea Also issued in print and PDF version.
Contenidos:
A. Dedication -- B. About the authors -- C. Foreword -- other books by norman p. Lieberman -- D. Preface to the fourth edition -- E. Preface to the third edition -- F. Preface to the second edition -- G. Preface to the first edition -- H. Introduction -- I. Acknowledgments -- 1. Process equipment fundamentals -- frictional losses -- density difference induces flow -- natural thermosyphon circulation -- reducing hydrocarbon partial pressure -- corrosion at home -- what i know -- distillation: the first application -- origin of reflux -- glossary -- 2. Basic terms and conditions -- 3. How trays work: flooding -- history of distillation -- tray types -- tray efficiency -- downcomer backup -- downcomer clearance -- vapor-flow pressure drop -- jet flood -- incipient flood -- tower pressure drop and flooding -- optimizing feed tray location -- catacarb co2 absorber flooding -- 4. How trays work: dumping -- tray pressure drop -- other causes of tray inefficiency -- bubble-cap trays -- new high capacity trays -- calculating tray efficiency -- 5. Notes on tray design details -- process design equipment details -- 6. Why control tower pressure -- selecting an optimum tower pressure -- raising the tower pressure target -- lowering the tower pressure -- the phase rule in distillation -- 7. What drives distillation towers -- the reboiler -- heat-balance calculations -- 8. How reboilers work -- thermosyphon reboilers -- forced-circulation reboilers -- kettle reboilers -- don't forget fouling -- vapor binding in steam reboilers -- 9. Inspecting tower internals -- tray deck levelness -- loss of downcomer seal due to leaks -- effect of missing caps -- repairing loose tray panels -- improper downcomer clearance -- inlet weirs -- seal pans -- drain holes -- vortex breakers -- chimney tray leakage -- shear clips -- bubble-cap trays -- final inspection -- conclusion -- reference -- 10. How instruments work -- level -- foam affects levels -- pressure -- flow -- temperature -- reference -- 11. Packed towers: better than trays? -- how packed towers work -- maintaining functional and structural efficiency in packed towers -- advantages of packing vs. Trays -- reference -- 12. Steam and condensate systems -- steam reboilers -- condensing heat-transfer rates -- maintaining system efficiency -- carbonic acid corrosion -- condensate collection systems -- deaerators -- surface condensers -- 13. Vapor lock and exchanger flooding in steam systems -- function of the steam trap -- non-condensable venting -- corrosive steam -- condensate drum -- condensate drainage and vapor lock -- elevated condensate collection drum -- conclusion -- 14. Bubble point and dew point -- bubble point -- dew point -- reference -- 15. Steam strippers -- heat of evaporation -- stripper efficiency -- references -- 16. Draw-off nozzle hydraulics -- nozzle exit loss -- critical flow -- maintaining nozzle efficiency -- overcoming nozzle exit loss limits -- reference -- 17. Pumparounds and tower heat flows -- the pumparound -- vapor flow -- fractionation -- 18. Condensers and tower pressure control -- subcooling, vapor binding, and condensation -- pressure control -- 19. Air coolers -- fin fouling -- fan discharge pressure -- effect of reduced air flow -- adjustments and corrections to improve cooling -- designing for efficiency -- 20. Thermodynamics -- why is thermodynamics important to the plant operator? -- the source of steam velocity -- converting latent heat to velocity -- effect of wet steam -- steam ejector temperature profile -- roto-flow turbo expander -- the meaning of entropy -- 21. Deaerators and steam systems -- boiler feedwater -- boilers -- convective section waste-heat steam generation -- references.
22. Steam generation -- boiler blowdown rate -- types of steam-generating equipment -- boiler feed water preparation -- effect of air preheat on boiler capacity -- deaerator operation -- boiler feedwater preheat -- boiler thermal efficiency -- sloped demister -- references -- 23. Vacuum systems: steam jet ejectors -- theory of operation -- converging and diverging compression -- calculations, performance curves, and other measurements in jet systems -- optimum vacuum tower-top temperature -- measurement of a deep vacuum without mercury -- reference -- 24. Steam turbines -- principle of operation and calculations -- selecting optimum turbine speed -- 25. Surface condensers -- the second law of thermodynamics -- surface condenser problems -- surface condenser heat-transfer coefficients -- references -- 26. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers: heat-transfer fouling resistance -- allowing for thermal expansion -- heat-transfer efficiency -- exchanger cleaning -- mechanical design for good heat transfer -- importance of shell-side cross-flow -- references -- 27. Heat exchanger innovations -- smooth high alloy tubes -- low-finned tubes -- sintered metal tubes -- spiral heat exchanger -- tube inserts -- twisted tubes and twisted tube bundle -- helical tube support baffles -- reference -- 28. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers: design details -- selecting the process fluid location -- design the shell side for ease of cleaning -- 29. Fired heaters: fire- and flue-gas side -- effect of reduced air flow -- absolute combustion -- draft -- air leakage -- efficient air/fuel mixing -- optimizing excess air -- air preheating, lighting burners, and heat balancing -- reference -- 30. Fired heaters: process side -- process duty versus heat liberation -- heater tube failures -- flow in heater tubes -- low-nox burners -- tube fire-side heaters -- 31. Refrigeration systems -- refrigerant receiver -- evaporator temperature control -- compressor and condenser operation -- refrigerant composition -- 32. Cooling water systems -- locating exchanger tube leaks -- tube-side fouling -- changing tube-side passes -- cooling tower ph control -- wooden cooling towers -- back-flushing and air rumbling -- acid cleaning -- increasing water flow -- piping pressure losses -- cooling tower efficiency -- wet bulb temperature -- reference -- 33. Catalytic effects: equilibrium and kinetics -- kinetics vs. Equilibrium -- temperature vs. Time -- purpose of a catalyst -- lessons from lithuania -- zero order reactions -- runaway reaction -- common chemical plant and refinery catalytic processes -- 34. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals of operation -- head -- starting npsh requirement -- pressure -- pump impeller -- effect of temperature on pump capacity -- 35. Centrifugal pumps: driver limits -- electric motors -- steam turbines -- gears -- reference -- 36. Centrifugal pumps: suction pressure limits -- cavitation and net positive suction head -- sub-atmospheric suction pressure -- 37. Centrifugal pumps: reducing seal and bearing failures -- a packed pump -- mechanical seal -- purpose of seal flush -- seal leaks -- wasting external seal flush oil -- double mechanical seal -- dry seals -- application of nitrogen barrier seals using double mechanical seals -- steam use in seal chamber -- pressure balancing holes -- bearing failures -- starting a centrifugal pump -- references -- 38. Control valves -- pumps and control valves -- operating on the bad part of the curve -- control valve position -- valve position dials -- air-to-open valves -- saving energy in existing hydraulic systems -- control valve bypasses -- plugged control valves -- 39. Separators: vapor-hydrocarbon-water -- gravity settling -- demisters -- entrainment due to foam -- water-hydrocarbon separations -- electrically accelerated water coalescing -- static coalescers -- 40. Gas compression: the basic idea -- relationship between heat and work -- compression work (cp - cv) -- reference -- 41. Centrifugal compressors and surge -- centrifugal compression and surge -- compressor efficiency -- frequently asked questions about centrifugal compressors.
42. Reciprocating compressors -- theory of reciprocating compressor operation -- the carnot cycle -- the indicator card -- volumetric compressor efficiency -- unloaders -- rod loading -- variable molecular weight -- 43. Compressor efficiency -- jet engine -- controlling vibration and temperature rise -- relative efficiency -- relative work: external pressure losses -- 44. Safety concerns -- relief-valve plugging -- relieving to atmosphere -- corrosion monitoring -- alarms and trips -- auto-ignition of hydrocarbons -- paper gaskets -- calculating heats of reaction -- hot water explodes out of manway -- 45. Relief valve system design -- coke drums -- high-pressure fixed-bed reactors -- trayed towers and packed columns -- liquid-filled vessels -- sour water strippers -- protecting relief valves from fouling and corrosion -- dual relief valves -- process design responsibility for relief valve design -- relief valve and pressure sensing connections -- heat exchanger safety reliefs -- relief valve effluents -- maintaining flare header positive pressures -- leaking relief valves -- tray failure due to relief valves -- the piper alpha rig destruction -- 46. Corrosion-process units -- closer to home -- erosive velocities -- mixed phase flow -- carbonate corrosion -- naphthenic acid attack -- a short history of corrosion -- corrosion-fired heaters -- oil-fired heaters -- finned-tube corrosion -- field identification of piping metallurgy -- 47. Waste water strippers -- purpose of sour water strippers -- two-stage sour water stripper -- tray efficiency -- computer simulation and theoretical tray efficiency -- use of caustic to improve stripping -- water stripper reboiler corrosion and fouling -- ballast water stripper -- conclusions -- reference -- 48. Fluid flow in pipes -- field engineer's method for estimating pipe flow -- field pressure drop survey -- line sizing for low-viscosity and turbulent flow -- frictional pressure loss in rough and smooth pipe -- special case for laminar flow -- smooth pipes and turbulent flow -- very rough pipes and very turbulent flow -- non-newtonian fluids -- some types of flow behavior -- viscoelastic fluids -- identifying the type of flow behavior -- apparent and effective viscosity of non-newtonian liquids -- the power law or ostwald de waele model -- generalized reynolds numbers -- references -- 49. Super-fractionation separation stage -- my first encounter with super-fractionation -- kettle reboiler -- partial condenser -- side reboilers and intercoolers -- 50. Hand calculations for distillation towers -- introduction -- bubble point and dew point calculations -- the absorption factor or stripping factor chart -- conclusion -- references -- 51. Computer modeling and control -- modeling a propane-propylene splitter -- computer control -- material balance problems in computer modeling -- fourth edition update comments -- 52. Field troubleshooting process problems -- de-ethanizer flooding -- the elements of troubleshooting -- field calculations -- troubleshooting tools-your wrench -- field measurements -- troubleshooting methods -- afterword -- A. Glossary -- B. The norm lieberman video library of troubleshooting process operations.
Resumen: Applicable to a broad range of technicians and industries and fully updated throughout, A Working Guide to Process Equipment, Fourth Edition, explains how to diagnose, troubleshoot, and correct problems with chemical and petroleum refining process equipment. Nine new chapters cover: • Tray design details • Shell-and-tube heat exchanger design details • Relief valve system design • Vapor lock and exchanger flooding in steam systems • Steam generation operating and design details • Wastewater strippers • Thermodynamics-how it applies to process equipment • Centrifugal pumps-reducing seal and bearing failures • Hand calculations for distillation towers • Vapor-liquid equilibrium, absorption, and stripping calculations Filled with examples and illustrations, this practical resource demonstrates how theory applies to solving real-world plant operation problems. Selected hand calculation methods are also provided.
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Recurso Electrónico Recurso Electrónico Biblioteca Fundación Área Andina - Pereira
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"Fourth edition"-- Cover

Previous edition: 2008.

Previous ed.: published as by Norman P. Lieberman and Elizabeth T. Lieberman. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003.

A. Dedication -- B. About the authors -- C. Foreword -- other books by norman p. Lieberman -- D. Preface to the fourth edition -- E. Preface to the third edition -- F. Preface to the second edition -- G. Preface to the first edition -- H. Introduction -- I. Acknowledgments -- 1. Process equipment fundamentals -- frictional losses -- density difference induces flow -- natural thermosyphon circulation -- reducing hydrocarbon partial pressure -- corrosion at home -- what i know -- distillation: the first application -- origin of reflux -- glossary -- 2. Basic terms and conditions -- 3. How trays work: flooding -- history of distillation -- tray types -- tray efficiency -- downcomer backup -- downcomer clearance -- vapor-flow pressure drop -- jet flood -- incipient flood -- tower pressure drop and flooding -- optimizing feed tray location -- catacarb co2 absorber flooding -- 4. How trays work: dumping -- tray pressure drop -- other causes of tray inefficiency -- bubble-cap trays -- new high capacity trays -- calculating tray efficiency -- 5. Notes on tray design details -- process design equipment details -- 6. Why control tower pressure -- selecting an optimum tower pressure -- raising the tower pressure target -- lowering the tower pressure -- the phase rule in distillation -- 7. What drives distillation towers -- the reboiler -- heat-balance calculations -- 8. How reboilers work -- thermosyphon reboilers -- forced-circulation reboilers -- kettle reboilers -- don't forget fouling -- vapor binding in steam reboilers -- 9. Inspecting tower internals -- tray deck levelness -- loss of downcomer seal due to leaks -- effect of missing caps -- repairing loose tray panels -- improper downcomer clearance -- inlet weirs -- seal pans -- drain holes -- vortex breakers -- chimney tray leakage -- shear clips -- bubble-cap trays -- final inspection -- conclusion -- reference -- 10. How instruments work -- level -- foam affects levels -- pressure -- flow -- temperature -- reference -- 11. Packed towers: better than trays? -- how packed towers work -- maintaining functional and structural efficiency in packed towers -- advantages of packing vs. Trays -- reference -- 12. Steam and condensate systems -- steam reboilers -- condensing heat-transfer rates -- maintaining system efficiency -- carbonic acid corrosion -- condensate collection systems -- deaerators -- surface condensers -- 13. Vapor lock and exchanger flooding in steam systems -- function of the steam trap -- non-condensable venting -- corrosive steam -- condensate drum -- condensate drainage and vapor lock -- elevated condensate collection drum -- conclusion -- 14. Bubble point and dew point -- bubble point -- dew point -- reference -- 15. Steam strippers -- heat of evaporation -- stripper efficiency -- references -- 16. Draw-off nozzle hydraulics -- nozzle exit loss -- critical flow -- maintaining nozzle efficiency -- overcoming nozzle exit loss limits -- reference -- 17. Pumparounds and tower heat flows -- the pumparound -- vapor flow -- fractionation -- 18. Condensers and tower pressure control -- subcooling, vapor binding, and condensation -- pressure control -- 19. Air coolers -- fin fouling -- fan discharge pressure -- effect of reduced air flow -- adjustments and corrections to improve cooling -- designing for efficiency -- 20. Thermodynamics -- why is thermodynamics important to the plant operator? -- the source of steam velocity -- converting latent heat to velocity -- effect of wet steam -- steam ejector temperature profile -- roto-flow turbo expander -- the meaning of entropy -- 21. Deaerators and steam systems -- boiler feedwater -- boilers -- convective section waste-heat steam generation -- references.

22. Steam generation -- boiler blowdown rate -- types of steam-generating equipment -- boiler feed water preparation -- effect of air preheat on boiler capacity -- deaerator operation -- boiler feedwater preheat -- boiler thermal efficiency -- sloped demister -- references -- 23. Vacuum systems: steam jet ejectors -- theory of operation -- converging and diverging compression -- calculations, performance curves, and other measurements in jet systems -- optimum vacuum tower-top temperature -- measurement of a deep vacuum without mercury -- reference -- 24. Steam turbines -- principle of operation and calculations -- selecting optimum turbine speed -- 25. Surface condensers -- the second law of thermodynamics -- surface condenser problems -- surface condenser heat-transfer coefficients -- references -- 26. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers: heat-transfer fouling resistance -- allowing for thermal expansion -- heat-transfer efficiency -- exchanger cleaning -- mechanical design for good heat transfer -- importance of shell-side cross-flow -- references -- 27. Heat exchanger innovations -- smooth high alloy tubes -- low-finned tubes -- sintered metal tubes -- spiral heat exchanger -- tube inserts -- twisted tubes and twisted tube bundle -- helical tube support baffles -- reference -- 28. Shell-and-tube heat exchangers: design details -- selecting the process fluid location -- design the shell side for ease of cleaning -- 29. Fired heaters: fire- and flue-gas side -- effect of reduced air flow -- absolute combustion -- draft -- air leakage -- efficient air/fuel mixing -- optimizing excess air -- air preheating, lighting burners, and heat balancing -- reference -- 30. Fired heaters: process side -- process duty versus heat liberation -- heater tube failures -- flow in heater tubes -- low-nox burners -- tube fire-side heaters -- 31. Refrigeration systems -- refrigerant receiver -- evaporator temperature control -- compressor and condenser operation -- refrigerant composition -- 32. Cooling water systems -- locating exchanger tube leaks -- tube-side fouling -- changing tube-side passes -- cooling tower ph control -- wooden cooling towers -- back-flushing and air rumbling -- acid cleaning -- increasing water flow -- piping pressure losses -- cooling tower efficiency -- wet bulb temperature -- reference -- 33. Catalytic effects: equilibrium and kinetics -- kinetics vs. Equilibrium -- temperature vs. Time -- purpose of a catalyst -- lessons from lithuania -- zero order reactions -- runaway reaction -- common chemical plant and refinery catalytic processes -- 34. Centrifugal pumps: fundamentals of operation -- head -- starting npsh requirement -- pressure -- pump impeller -- effect of temperature on pump capacity -- 35. Centrifugal pumps: driver limits -- electric motors -- steam turbines -- gears -- reference -- 36. Centrifugal pumps: suction pressure limits -- cavitation and net positive suction head -- sub-atmospheric suction pressure -- 37. Centrifugal pumps: reducing seal and bearing failures -- a packed pump -- mechanical seal -- purpose of seal flush -- seal leaks -- wasting external seal flush oil -- double mechanical seal -- dry seals -- application of nitrogen barrier seals using double mechanical seals -- steam use in seal chamber -- pressure balancing holes -- bearing failures -- starting a centrifugal pump -- references -- 38. Control valves -- pumps and control valves -- operating on the bad part of the curve -- control valve position -- valve position dials -- air-to-open valves -- saving energy in existing hydraulic systems -- control valve bypasses -- plugged control valves -- 39. Separators: vapor-hydrocarbon-water -- gravity settling -- demisters -- entrainment due to foam -- water-hydrocarbon separations -- electrically accelerated water coalescing -- static coalescers -- 40. Gas compression: the basic idea -- relationship between heat and work -- compression work (cp - cv) -- reference -- 41. Centrifugal compressors and surge -- centrifugal compression and surge -- compressor efficiency -- frequently asked questions about centrifugal compressors.

42. Reciprocating compressors -- theory of reciprocating compressor operation -- the carnot cycle -- the indicator card -- volumetric compressor efficiency -- unloaders -- rod loading -- variable molecular weight -- 43. Compressor efficiency -- jet engine -- controlling vibration and temperature rise -- relative efficiency -- relative work: external pressure losses -- 44. Safety concerns -- relief-valve plugging -- relieving to atmosphere -- corrosion monitoring -- alarms and trips -- auto-ignition of hydrocarbons -- paper gaskets -- calculating heats of reaction -- hot water explodes out of manway -- 45. Relief valve system design -- coke drums -- high-pressure fixed-bed reactors -- trayed towers and packed columns -- liquid-filled vessels -- sour water strippers -- protecting relief valves from fouling and corrosion -- dual relief valves -- process design responsibility for relief valve design -- relief valve and pressure sensing connections -- heat exchanger safety reliefs -- relief valve effluents -- maintaining flare header positive pressures -- leaking relief valves -- tray failure due to relief valves -- the piper alpha rig destruction -- 46. Corrosion-process units -- closer to home -- erosive velocities -- mixed phase flow -- carbonate corrosion -- naphthenic acid attack -- a short history of corrosion -- corrosion-fired heaters -- oil-fired heaters -- finned-tube corrosion -- field identification of piping metallurgy -- 47. Waste water strippers -- purpose of sour water strippers -- two-stage sour water stripper -- tray efficiency -- computer simulation and theoretical tray efficiency -- use of caustic to improve stripping -- water stripper reboiler corrosion and fouling -- ballast water stripper -- conclusions -- reference -- 48. Fluid flow in pipes -- field engineer's method for estimating pipe flow -- field pressure drop survey -- line sizing for low-viscosity and turbulent flow -- frictional pressure loss in rough and smooth pipe -- special case for laminar flow -- smooth pipes and turbulent flow -- very rough pipes and very turbulent flow -- non-newtonian fluids -- some types of flow behavior -- viscoelastic fluids -- identifying the type of flow behavior -- apparent and effective viscosity of non-newtonian liquids -- the power law or ostwald de waele model -- generalized reynolds numbers -- references -- 49. Super-fractionation separation stage -- my first encounter with super-fractionation -- kettle reboiler -- partial condenser -- side reboilers and intercoolers -- 50. Hand calculations for distillation towers -- introduction -- bubble point and dew point calculations -- the absorption factor or stripping factor chart -- conclusion -- references -- 51. Computer modeling and control -- modeling a propane-propylene splitter -- computer control -- material balance problems in computer modeling -- fourth edition update comments -- 52. Field troubleshooting process problems -- de-ethanizer flooding -- the elements of troubleshooting -- field calculations -- troubleshooting tools-your wrench -- field measurements -- troubleshooting methods -- afterword -- A. Glossary -- B. The norm lieberman video library of troubleshooting process operations.

Applicable to a broad range of technicians and industries and fully updated throughout, A Working Guide to Process Equipment, Fourth Edition, explains how to diagnose, troubleshoot, and correct problems with chemical and petroleum refining process equipment. Nine new chapters cover: • Tray design details • Shell-and-tube heat exchanger design details • Relief valve system design • Vapor lock and exchanger flooding in steam systems • Steam generation operating and design details • Wastewater strippers • Thermodynamics-how it applies to process equipment • Centrifugal pumps-reducing seal and bearing failures • Hand calculations for distillation towers • Vapor-liquid equilibrium, absorption, and stripping calculations Filled with examples and illustrations, this practical resource demonstrates how theory applies to solving real-world plant operation problems. Selected hand calculation methods are also provided.

Also issued in print and PDF version.


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